Fluorides are an important component of any caries prevention program. Small amounts of fluoride can increase the resistance of tooth structure to demineralization. Natural sources of fluorides in the diet include fish like salmon and sardines, rock salt, tea leaves, potatoes, jowar and bananas. Mineral water contains 1.5 to 7 parts per million (ppm) of fluoride depending on the geological source.
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF FLUORIDES:
- Presence of fluoride ions in the oral cavity precipates fluorapatite into tooth structure from the calcium and phosphate ions present in saliva. Fluorapatite makes enamel more resistant to caries attack with dentist fremantle
- Fluoride helps in mineralization of hypomineralised areas that are often present in a newly erupted tooth.
- By forming fluorapatite, fluoride helps in remineralisation of incipient caries.
- Fluoride interferes with bacterial enzymatic process by inhibiting glucose uptake by the bacterial cell. Thus, it prevents formation of extracellular polysaccharides which helps in bacterial adhesion.
- Fluoride ingested during tooth development makes the teeth slightly smaller with shallow fissures and decreased cusp heights. This modification in tooth morphology increases caries resistance.
Fluoride delivery methods:
There are several methods for supplying fluorides. These may be:
The fluoride supplement is chosen according to the patient’s age, caries experience, general health, and oral hygiene.
- Fluoridated community water: This is best suited for children with developing permanent teeth. The optimal level for public water supplies is about 1ppm. Community water fluoridation is possible only where a central public water supply is present. This has been successfully implemented in United States.
- School water fluoridation: This method was also implemented in the United States where a 12 year study of school water fluoridation showed a 39% reduction in dental caries.
- Fluoride tablets and drops: Dietary fluoride supplements in the form of fluoride tablets and drops are required for children in areas without adequate fluoride in the water supply. Fluoride tablets usually contain sodium fluoride or calcium fluoride. The amount of fluoride required should be individually determined based on age, weight, and dietary pattern of the child.
TOPICAL FLUORIDES: These are delivery methods where the fluoride is supplied locally to the exposed tooth surfaces of erupted teeth.
- Professionally applied topical fluorides: These are professionally applied by the dentist. These may include various forms such as:
- Prophylactic pastes containing fluoride
- Fluoride solutions
- Fluoride gels
- Fluoride varnishes
- Self applied topical fluorides: These are agents recommended for patients who are at high risk for caries development and living in areas with low fluoride content in the water supply. These include:
- Fluoride dentifrices: Sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphosphate can be incorporated into toothpastes to provide topical fluoride for caries prevention. Fluoridated toothpastes usually contain 1000 ppm of fluoride. For high risk patients, fluoride dentifrices are recommended for use twice daily. They should be cleared from mouth by spitting rather than vigorous rinsing.
- Fluoride mouth rinses: Sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate fluoride are available as mouth rinses. They are useful as adjuncts along with fluoride toothpastes for high risk patients. The patient is recommended to use 10 ml of the mouth rinse for swishing around the mouth for 1 minute after which eating or drinking should be delayed for 1 hour.
Lately, my wife and I have been shopping around for a New Toyota Kluger which costs around $60,000. We’ve been to all the new car dealers in Perth and shopped around for price. We know what we want, but the fact is if I opt for a used Toyota Kluger, I’ll save around $10,000. Its basically got all the bells and whistles of a new model, but except someones owned before me.
We went to check out the used car yards in Wangara, Perth and found a black one we really like for only $40,000. Its the 2010 model but I guess for 20 grand less, its worth it. What do you think?
Kitchen Renovations Projects can mean an excellent return in your investment plus a more comfortable and efficient heart of the Perth home. With the many home remodelling options today, selecting which materials, appliances and furniture can be an overwhelming task. Narrow down your options by choosing a particular theme that suite your needs and preferences. Organic with clean and sleek lines are seen in most of today’s modern kitchens. Appliances using the newest technology are also seen as a practical upgrade with eco-friendly and energy efficient features. Know your style with the following interior design styles we’ve listed below.
Tips in Remodelling Kitchens
1. Sleek and Modern. If you love the works of Koolhas, Knoll and Johnson with an admiration of Japanese architecture then you may be a minimalist. The uncluttered look can be achieved by using shallow counter depths, seamless and straight edged cabinets and translucent hanging cabinets. Popular colors for minimalist kitchens are black, white, gray and dark brown. Combine 2 to 3 of these colors and you’ll get a sophisticated clean look. Opt for a sculptural stove hood to provide contrast among the straight edged elements. The curved stove can act as a focal point. Choose a model that is made from glass or glass-like material to provide an airy and unobstructed view.
2. Fresh and Tropical. With this theme for your kitchen renovation, you’ll capture the warmth and lushness of the rainforest all year round. If you love rich earth colors such as brown and orange then this theme is a perfect choice. Choose a base color such as brown and white then add accent colors such as yellow green, lemon or tamarind hues. Exotic details are great features of the style. Make sure to include woven rattan, carved furniture legs and tile murals for the details. Wicker baskets and hampers are great additions for storage and seating.
3. Resort and Coastal. For sea lovers and those who love to go to yoga retreats and spas this theme is a great opportunity to showcase your nature inspired ideas. It can be related to tropical style but focused more on everything related to the sea. Aquatic colors such blue and white can be incorporated. Coral, palm and sea waves are charming accents to include around kitchen counters and other furniture items. Take advantage of the flooring by installing sea-inspired tiles. Wicker baskets and green lush plantings will add freshness to the kitchen area. If you love Mediterranean style then the resort and coastal is a modern version of the classic theme.
4. Boho and Eclectic. For the artistic minded homeowner, this style is a great opportunity to experiment on color and pattern. Bohemian and eclectic styled kitchens are unusual and are mostly seen in restaurants and cafes. For your home kitchen make sure to choose design elements that is easy to maintain. China and breakable pottery may not be the most practical kitchen items to have when you have young children at home. If you love to travel and collect unique art pieces then this theme is perfect for you. Although there’s no particular color for the theme red, black and metallic colors are usual combinations taken from gypsy inspired themes.
If you’re looking for a remodelling team that is licensed and insured consider The Perth Renovation Group.
Its always an exciting time when starting a new business. Whether it be a brick and mortar business or an online business, the core is always the same. Provide amazing value and experience and the money will follow. Just look at Facebook and how they have grown and will keep on growing, just by providing an amazing user experience and exceptional value they have grown to such a huge company.
But whether you’re a one man band or small family business, you always have to remember the value of each customer.